What is Hop Up in Airsoft Guns? How It Improves Range?

Airsoft guns use a mechanism called “hop up” to improve the range and accuracy of plastic BBs fired from the gun. The hop-up puts a backspin on the BBs, allowing them to fly further before dropping to the ground. Understanding how hop-up works and how to adjust it is key to getting the best performance out of your airsoft gun.

What is Hop Up?

The hop up is a device inside the barrel of most airsoft guns. It applies backspin, also called “hop,” to the plastic BBs as they are fired. The backspin counteracts the normal downward trajectory of BBs due to gravity, causing them to “hop” further through the air. This extends the effective range.

The hop up consists of a nub or lever inside the barrel that makes contact with the BB as it passes through. Putting pressure on the BB causes friction, which imparts a backspin. The amount of hop can be adjusted, allowing more or less backspin depending on the range you want to achieve. More hop and more backspin leads to further shot distance.

How Does Hop Up Work Physics?

From a physics perspective, the backspin created by the hop up provides lift to counteract gravity’s downward pull on the BB. The Magnus effect causes spinning spherical projectiles like BBs to create an air pressure differential around them. The faster spin of the BB leads to faster moving air above it which results in lower pressure. The slower-moving air below creates higher pressure. This pressure difference results in a lift force upwards. This lift force balances out gravity so the BB flies further horizontally before beginning to drop. Tuning the hop up changes the spin rate and therefore lift.

Hop Up Designs

There are a few main types of hop up designs:

Dial Style

One common design is a small dial or wheel on the side or bottom of the gun. Turning the dial adjusts tension on the nub inside the barrel, changing how much backspin is applied.

Lever Style

Another design uses a small lever placed below the barrel. The lever tensions the nub when pushed forward, enabling more hop.

Rotary Style

Rotary-style hop-ups use a barrel design that allows the inner barrel and hop up nub to be rotated. This raises and lowers the nub, changing how much backspin is applied.

Adjustable Nub

Some hop ups allow direct adjustment of the nub instead of using a dial or lever. The nub can slide to change the tension or the size of the contact patch on BBs.

Impact of Hop Up on Airsoft Gun Performance

Correctly using your airsoft gun’s hop up system is crucial for getting the best accuracy and distance. Here’s how it impacts different performance factors:


More hop up backspin results in a flatter BB trajectory, improving chances of hitting your target at long range. Insufficient hop may cause BBs to drop too quickly.


The right amount of backspin will maximize lift on BBs, enabling them to fly further horizontally before dropping. Too much or too little hop reduces effective range.


Adjustable hop-up allows you to fine-tune backspin for particular BB weights. Consistent spin improves precision shoot-to-shoot.

Wind Resistance

Backspin makes BBs less impacted by crosswinds downrange. They resist getting pushed off target better than BBs without spin adjustments.

What BB Weight Should I Use?

Heavier BBs maintain energy and resist winds better for range. Lighter BBs can reach higher velocities but shed speed and drop faster. Most airsoft guns perform best with .20 to .30g BBs. Ensure your hop-up is applying an optimum spin rate for the BB weight you choose. Heavier ammo normally needs more backspin. Testing different BB weights to gauge flight characteristics helps optimize hop-up settings.

How to Adjust Hop-Up?

Follow these tips when adjusting your airsoft gun’s hop-up for better performance:

Start with Min Settings

Begin with minimum hop applied then increase gradually until BBs fly flat and straight. Too much backspin will send them climbing vertically.

Test Fly BBs

Watch BB flight paths when making adjustments. The goal is a straight, flat trajectory that maximizes horizontal range before dropoff.

Fine Tune for Distance

Make small hop changes to precisely dial-in lift and distance. Avoid simply using max settings as too much spin causes instability.

Use Higher Weight BBs

Try heavier ammo if your gun is struggling to hop lighter BBs effectively. Heavier BBs maintain backspin energy better.

Check Consistency

Confirm settings by firing multiple shots with the same point of impact. Inconsistent hits mean more fine tuning is needed.

Maintaining Your Hop Up

Like all airsoft gun components, hop-ups require maintenance and care for consistent operation:

Avoid Jams

Don’t overload hop-ups with more BBs than the magazine can handle well. Too many BBs cause jams which can damage nubs.

Check Nub Wear

Inspect inner barrels and rubber nubs periodically. Replace worn parts causing poor spin consistency.

Keep Barrels Clean

Dirty barrels interfere with ideal nub contact on BBs. Regularly clean the inside of barrels for best performance.

Lubricate Moving Parts

Apply silicon oil to dial wheels, adjustment levers or rotary mechanisms to prevent stiffness over time.

Proper use and maintenance of your airsoft gun’s hop up translates to better accuracy, increased range, and more enjoyment on the airsoft playing field! Adjust backspin in small increments and continually test BB flight performance to optimize settings.

Frequently Asked Questions About Hop Up

Questions abound about properly setting up and tuning hop up systems. Here are answers to some frequently asked questions:

Does more hop always increase range?

No – too much hop can cause BBs to fly erratically. There is an ideal hop setting for flat trajectory and max distance. Start low and make gradual adjustments.

Should I use heavier BBs for more hop?

Usually yes – heavier ammo resists velocity decay from backspin better. But you need a hop system applying enough spin for heavy BBs, which not all guns can provide. Test different weights.

Why does my range worsen over time?

Barrel fouling from debris impacts hop performance. Clean barrels and check nub condition. Range reduce over time as hop components wear. Replace if needed.

How often should I upgrade my hop up?

Most stock hop systems are fairly durable. Upgrading makes sense if you desire extended range or need increased precision. Otherwise just replace worn parts as required.

Can I upgrade just hop components or do I need other mods?

Most guns with stock hop can be improved with just nub and barrel upgrades. If your gun lacks range for heavier ammo weights, consider upgrading inner mechanical components or the whole hop unit.


A hop-up applies backspin to BBs in airsoft guns, causing them to fly further and resist winds for improved accuracy at range. Adjustable hop allows spin fine tuning for different BB weights and maximum stable flight. Keep hop parts clean and properly maintained for consistency. Adjust in small increments, test fly BBs to observe flight paths, and choose ammo weights matched to your gun’s hop capabilities. With practice, you can achieve surgical precision out to extended distances!

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